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家具业寒潮波及上游 南兴装备业绩下滑

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 在品质竞争加剧的市场环境下 房企如何深度布局生产链? (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

用好市场化手段 让海洋像土地一样产出“黄金”

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

[breis]
A report by human resources website Zhaopin released recently found that only 3.1 percent of students expecting to graduate in July said they will start their own business, down from 6.3 percent in 2015.
年龄:45岁
由于孙轶潇没带手机,他开始尝试大声呼救以引起外面人的注意,但是时间一分一秒地流过,并没有人回应他。
2.Jennifer Lopez
'In the next 12 to 24 months, unless any of these bottlenecks are solved, we could see WTI going down to $50 a barrel, to incentivize producers to slow down,' she said
柯特妮韦弗(Courtney Weaver)

“We weren’t looking to throw the bums out, as they might say about an election. We were just really impressed with a flood of new powertrains, ” says Drew Winter, WardsAuto World Editor-in-Chief. “What was great yesterday might be less impressive tomorrow because engine technology is changing so rapidly.”
这部20世纪70年代黑色幽默犯罪电影的主角,是诈骗高手欧文·罗森菲尔德和他的情妇西德尼·普鲁塞尔,他们被一名联邦调查局(FBI)干员抓获,然后被迫欺骗腐败的政治家。二人继续与干员、政治家目标以及自己的家人周旋,最终达成豁免协议,得以不受任何刑事指控就脱离苦海。
However, significantly fewer women (59 per cent) occupy positions as department heads or above than men (68 per cent) three years after graduation.
“我们非常确信成交价会达到预测的最高价。”
The central bank last year spent more than six months signaling its intent to wean the economy off a third round of bond-buying, and the prospect upset markets at just about every turn. Now it's only in the first stage of that process.

Footnotes

  • 欧盟REACH法规新增对涂料中镉含量的限制要求
  • “现在黑客使用流行文化或体育活动中的常见说法来破解网上账户,因为他们知道很多人在使用这些容易记住的词做密码。”

James Bond Themes 8. "You Only Live Twice" by Nancy Sinatra
"史上最短的明星婚姻"大盘点
The show was a potent reminder that the sexual revolution and women entering the work force and the rise of consumerism and the Age of Aquarius (all that) had a dark side, and claimed their own victims. That’s part of why it was such a powerful show.
If you thought that getting sector over- and under-weights correct at the outset proved difficult, switching between them throughout the year was nearly impossible. A quantitative analyst from Nomura Securities explained to Barron’s in November that “industry leadership has been reversing from month-to-month at a rate unseen in decades of stock-market history. ‘Even if you’re picking the right stocks in a sector,’ he says, ‘things are moving around so much that your performance doesn’t persist.’”
He then proceeded to ram the violin through the canvas.
“中国银行业面临的逆风将延续很长时间,”他说。“除了盈利来源减少,它们还将不得不为坏账带来的亏损做好准备。”

深圳楼市新政:未来政策性住房将达60%

References

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