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地板行业将来式:未来五年商业创新模式大猜想

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 乌鲁木齐市木材交易市场开建:将实现家居产业向西转移的承接 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

“控风险”再获强调 未来房地产市场或“趋稳”

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

In that meeting, he told Jacobs that such problems would decrease, as China is reforming its management system in science and technology, according to a statement by the association on Friday.
"Machines will be stronger and smarter than human beings, but they will never be wiser," he said, "because one thing's for sure: Wisdom, soul and heart are things that only human beings possess, and machines can never enjoy failure, success, friendship or love."
severe的人总是sever
affection
Consoles: PlayStation 4
因此,在这个世界把你打败、为你冠以头衔前,发表独具风格的宣言,定义你心目中的自己。
中国拒绝承认存在任何不当行为,并表示正在努力解决工业产能过剩的问题。随着中国经济增长放缓,该问题变得日益尖锐。

6.凡事以人为先
8. “The Diary of a Teenage Girl” In her terrific feature debut, Marielle Heller traces the artistic and sexual awakening of a 15-year-old (a sensational Bel Powley) whose desires leads to adulthood.
Which brands most improved their reputations in social media in 2012? And which companies made them worse?
当其他同龄人每天乖乖去上学的时候,她已经出来养家糊口四年了,她不得不快速成熟起来。
6. Miranda Kerr

Footnotes

  • 不动产登记等186项国家标准发布
  • n. 诱惑力,吸引力

问:在过去的几次采访中,你都提到了你和角色之间的联系。那么在目前播放的Aldnoah Zero重,你觉得你和伊奈帆之间的联系是什么?
11月18日
可口可乐表示,中国消费放缓打击了销售额,而较为疲弱的需求正迫使其降低库存。
店长马克·斯特罗恩说,开发这种设备旨在帮助那些忘记自己锁屏密码的iPhone用户进入被锁在手机上的照片或通讯录。斯特罗恩在香港第一次看到这台设备,他表示,在最一开始大家都对其能否起作用持怀疑态度。但随着时间的推移,这台设备一次又一次的证明了自己。
塞巴斯蒂安佩恩(Sebastian Payne)
“学会让经济指标和人民主观的幸福感同步发展是很重要的,因为我们应该不仅仅是追求更强的经济能力,而应追求提高各个领域生活质量。”报告总结道。

中国城镇家庭负债率升至5.5%

References

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